What the testicles do @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The testicles make sperm and male hormones. The 2 main types of cells in the testicles that perform these functions are germ cells and stromal cells.
Germ cells @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The process of making sperm starts in germ cells, which line the seminiferous tubules. As they mature into sperm cells, germ cells move from the lining, through the maze of seminiferous tubules and to the epididymis. The epididymis stores sperm cells so they can completely mature.
Mature sperm cells travel through the vas deferens. Along the way, fluids made by the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland mix with the sperm cells to create semen. The semen is pushed out of the body through the urethra during ejaculation. Sperm in the semen can fertilize a female egg to start a pregnancy.
Stromal cells @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Stromal cells help other cells in the testicle. Different types of stromal cells do different things.
Sertoli (nurse) cells are a type of stromal cell found in the seminiferous tubules. They support the germ cells by helping make and transport sperm.
- sex drive (libido)
- fully developed genitals
- a deep voice
- body and facial hair
- bigger muscles and body size
American Cancer Society . What Is Testicular Cancer? . 2018 : https://www.cancer.org/.
Cancer Research UK . About Testicular Cancer . Cancer Research UK ; 2017 : https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/.
Martini FH, Timmons MJ, Tallitsch RB. Human Anatomy. 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings; 2012.
National Cancer Institute . Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) – Patient Version . Bethesda, MD : National Cancer Institute ; 2018 : https://www.cancer.gov/.
Reuter, VE . Anatomy and Pathology of Testis Cancer. Scardino PT, Lineham WM, Zelefsky MJ & Vogelzang NJ (eds.). Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011: 31:532-543.
Young B, O'Dowd G, Woodford P (eds.). Wheaters's Functional Histology. 6th ed. Churchill Livingston; 2014.