How the bladder works @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Urine is made by the
Other tissue that separates the bladder from other organs are:
- serosa – a thin membrane that covers the top part of the bladder
- adventitia – loose connective tissue that covers areas of the bladder where there is no serosa
- perivesical fat – a layer of fat surrounding the bladder
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American Cancer Society. About Bladder Cancer. 2016: https://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladder-cancer/about.html.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Bladder Cancer. 2017: https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/bladder-cancer.
Martini FH, Timmons MJ, Tallitsch RB. Human Anatomy. 7th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings; 2012.
National Cancer Institute. Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. 2018: https://www.cancer.gov/types/bladder/hp/bladder-treatment-pdq.
Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), National Cancer Institute. SEER Training Modules: Anatomy of the Bladder. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; https://training.seer.cancer.gov/bladder/anatomy/.