Cancerous tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
A cancerous tumour of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinus can grow into nearby tissue and destroy it. The tumour can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Cancerous tumours are also called malignant tumours.
It is often difficult for a doctor to tell the difference between a non-cancerous tumour and a cancerous tumour of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. Non-cancerous tumours and cancerous tumours have the same symptoms such as a stuffy, blocked or runny nose, mucus or bloody discharge from the nose, headache and sinus pain.
About 70% of all nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers start in the maxillary sinus. Tumours can also start in the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinuses. Cancerous tumours of the frontal sinus or sphenoid sinus are very rare.
The most common cancerous tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are:
squamous cell carcinoma
minor salivary gland cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) starts in the flat, thin cells that cover many of the surfaces inside and outside of the body, including the
Over 80% of all nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers are SCC. Subtypes of SCC include:
spindle cell carcinoma
papillary squamous cell carcinoma
non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
Minor salivary gland cancer @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The salivary glands are very small glands found in the mucous membrane in the mouth, hard and soft palates, the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses.
Minor salivary gland cancer makes up about 10% to 15% of all nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.
The types of minor salivary gland cancer that affect the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are:
- adenoid cystic carcinoma
- carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma
Minor salivary gland cancer is usually treated with both surgery and radiation therapy.
Find out more about cancerous tumours of the salivary gland.
Adenocarcinoma starts in gland cells in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. This type of tumour is most often found in the upper part of the nasal cavity and the ethmoid sinuses. Adenocarcinoma can be slow growing (low grade) or fast growing (high grade).
Some of these tumours diagnosed in men are strongly linked to breathing in wood dust.
Adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is usually treated with both surgery and radiation therapy.
Neuroendocrine cancer @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Neuroendocrine cancer is a rare cancer that starts in the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is made up of neuroendocrine cells. Neuroendocrine cells are like nerve cells, but they also make hormones and release them into the blood. Neuroendocrine cells are spread throughout the body, but are found most often in the organs of the
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumour that starts in the nervous system cells that are responsible for smell (called olfactory cells). It often starts in the upper part of the nasal cavity. It is a slow-growing cancer that has a better prognosis than other types of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.
Esthesioneuroblastoma is also called olfactory neuroblastoma.
Treatment for esthesioneuroblastoma often includes a combination of surgery and radiation therapy and sometimes chemotherapy.
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine cancer in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus. It grows very quickly and spreads to other parts of the body, such as the liver and lungs. SNUC is often treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery.
Rare nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumours @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The following cancerous tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are rare:
Most cases of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus lymphoma are non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is most often found in the nasal cavity. It can be a slow-growing or fast-growing cancer.
Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus lymphoma is usually treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Find out more about extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma.
Mucosal melanoma @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Melanoma is a type of skin cancer, but it can start in the mucous membranes of the body. It can start in the nasal cavity and, in rare cases, it develops in the paranasal sinuses. About 1% to 2% of all melanomas develop in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Melanoma in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses is often aggressive and is treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy and sometimes chemotherapy.
Find out more about melanoma skin cancer.
Soft tissue sarcoma @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Soft tissue sarcoma starts in the cells of connective and supporting tissues. The most common type of soft tissue sarcoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is glomangiopericytoma. It starts in cells that surround blood vessels. Cancerous glomangiopericytomas are rare. Most glomangiopericytomas are non-cancerous (benign). Benign glomaniopericytomas can grow quickly in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, but they do not spread to other areas of the body.
Find out more about soft tissue sarcoma.
Bone cancer @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Ewing sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma are types of bone cancer that can start in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. They are usually treated like other bone cancers.
Find out more about bone cancer.
American Cancer Society. Nasal and Paranasal Sinus Cancers. Atlanta, GA: 2014: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003123-pdf.pdf.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer. 2014: http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/nasal-cavity-and-paranasal-sinus-cancer/view-all.
Bar-Ad V, Tuluc M, Cognetti D & Axelrod R . Uncommon tumors of the oral cavity and adjacent structures. Raghavan D, Blanke CD, Honson DH, et al. (eds.). Textbook of Uncommon Cancer. 4th ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2012: 6:pp. 97-117.
Cancer Research UK. Types of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer. Cancer Research UK; 2014: http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/nasal-cancer/about/types-of-nasal-cavity-and-paranasal-sinus-cancer.
Carrau RL. Malignant Tumors of the Nasal Cavity. WebMD LLC; 2011: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/846995-overview#showall.
Frank SJ, Ahamad A, Ang KK . Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Halperin EC, Wazer DE, Perez CA, Brady LW. Perez and Brady's Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013: 42.
Klem C. Malignant Tumors of the Sinuses. WebMD LLC; 2013: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/847189-overview#a0104.
Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG . Cancer of the head and neck. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, & Rosenberg SA. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015: 38: 422-473.
National Cancer Institute. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity CancerTreatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2014: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/paranasalsinus/HealthProfessional/page2/AllPages/Print.
Newkirk KA, Holsinger FC . Cancers of the head and neck. Feig BW & Ching CD. The MD Anderson Surgical Oncology Handbook. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012: 6: 196-219.
Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Clinical Practice Guidelines - Head & Neck, Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus. 2014: http://www.theprincessmargaret.ca/en/HealthcareProfessionals/ProgramDepartments/HN/Documents/Nasal-Cavity-Paranasal-Sinus.pdf.
Somenek M. Esthesioneuroblastoma. 2015: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/278047-overview.
Tabaee A, Persky MS . Cancer of the nasal vestibule, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, anterior skull base, and orbit: Surgical management. Harrison LB, Sessions RB, & Kies MS. Head and Neck Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014: 20:525-559.