Stages of colorectal cancer
Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The cancer cells are only in the inner lining of the colon or rectum (mucosa). They may be in the
Stage 1 @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The tumour has grown into the layer of connective tissue that surrounds the mucosa (submucosa) or into the thick outer muscle layer of the colon or rectum (muscularis propria).
Stage 2 @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Stage 2 can be divided into stages 2A, 2B and 2C.
For stage 2A, the tumour has grown into the layer of tissue between the muscularis propria and serosa, or it has grown into tissues beyond the muscularis propria (when there is no serosa).
For stage 2B, the tumour has grown through the membrane that covers and supports the colon and rectum (called the serosa or visceral peritoneum).
For stage 2C, the tumour has grown through the wall of the colon or rectum and into other organs or areas, such as the bladder, prostate or uterus.
Stage 3 @(Model.HeadingTag)>
There are cancer cells in lymph nodes near the colon or rectum. Stage 3 can be divided into stages 3A, 3B and 3C depending on where the tumour has grown and how many lymph nodes have cancer.
Stage 4 @(Model.HeadingTag)>
The cancer has spread to other parts of the body (called distant metastasis), such as to the liver or lungs. This is also called metastatic colorectal cancer. The cancer may be in only 1 organ or in distant lymph nodes (stage 4A). It may be in more than 1 organ (stage 4B). The cancer may be in the
Recurrent colorectal cancer @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Recurrent colorectal cancer means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated. If it comes back in the same place that the cancer first started, it’s called local recurrence. If it comes back in tissues or lymph nodes close to where it first started, it’s called regional recurrence. It can also recur in another part of the body. This is called distant metastasis or distant recurrence.
Colorectal Cancer - Stages. American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). Cancer.Net. Alexandria, VA.: American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO); 2013.
Jessup JM, Goldberg RM, Asare EA, et al. Colon and rectum. Amin, MB (ed.). AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 8th ed. Chicago, IL: American College of Surgeons; 2017: 20:251–274.
Bosman FT, Carneiro F, Hruban RH, Theise ND. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System. 4th ed. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC); 2010.
Brierley JD, Gospodarowicz MK, Wittekind C (eds.). TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. 8th ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2017.