Prognosis and survival for anal cancer
If you have anal cancer, you may have questions about your prognosis. A prognosis is the doctor’s best estimate of how cancer will affect a person and how it will respond to treatment. Prognosis and survival depend on many factors. Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, type of cancer, stage, characteristics of your cancer, treatments chosen and response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.
A prognostic factor is an aspect of the cancer or a characteristic of the person that the doctor will consider when making a prognosis. The following are prognostic factors for anal cancer.
Size of the tumour @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Tumours smaller than 2 cm have a better prognosis than larger tumours. Tumours larger than 5 cm tend to have a poor prognosis.
If cancer has spread to lymph nodes @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Anal cancer that hasn’t spread to lymph nodes has a better prognosis than cancer that has spread to lymph nodes.
Hemoglobin levels @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells. It carries oxygen and gives blood its red colour. People with low hemoglobin levels usually have a less favourable prognosis.
Type of tumour @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Squamous cell carcinomas have a better prognosis than adenocarcinomas and other rare anal cancers.
Czito BG, Ahmed S, Kalady M, Eng C . Cancer of the Anal Region. DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2015: 61:842-856.
Das P, Crane CH, Eng C, Ajani JA . Prognostic factors for squamous cell cancer of the anal canal. Gastrointestinal Cancer Research. 2008: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630809/.
Glynne-Jones R, Sebag-Montefiore D, Adams R, Gollins S, Harrison M, Meadows HM et al . Prognostic factors for recurrence and survival in anal cancer: generating hypotheses from the mature outcomes of the first United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research Anal Cancer Trial (ACT I) . Cancer . 2013 .
Kapacee ZA, Susnerwala S, Wise M, Biswas A, Scott N . Prognostic factors for squamous cell anal canal cancer . Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2014 ASCO Annual Meeting Abstracts . 2014 .
National Cancer Institute. Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. 2014: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/anal/HealthProfessional/page1/AllPages.