Anal cancer

What is anal cancer?

Anal cancer starts in cells around the anus. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma.

Risk factors for anal cancer

The most important risk factor for anal cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Learn about anal cancer risk.

Finding anal cancer early

When anal cancer is detected and treated early, the chances of successful treatment are better. Learn about finding anal cancer early.

Symptoms of anal cancer

Symptoms of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus and pain or discomfort and itching in the anal area. Learn about the symptoms of anal cancer.

Diagnosis of anal cancer

Tests to diagnose anal cancer, such as anoscopy and biopsy, are done when symptoms are present. Learn about diagnosing anal cancer.

Grading anal cancer

Grading describes how cancer cells look compared to healthy cells. Anal cancer is described as low grade or high grade.

Stages of anal cancer

The stage describes how much cancer is in the body. Anal cancer is often discussed as localized, regional or metastatic.

If anal cancer spreads

Cancer can spread from around the anus to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis. Learn about common sites where anal cancer can spread.

Prognosis and survival for anal cancer

Prognosis estimates the outcome for anal cancer. It depends on many factors including the size of the tumour and if cancer has spread to lymph nodes.

Treatments for anal cancer

Anal cancer can be treated with chemoradiation, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and surgery.

Supportive care for anal cancer

Supportive care for anal cancer helps people cope with physical, practical, emotional and spiritual challenges.

Anal cancer statistics

Cancer statistics tell us how many people in Canada are diagnosed with and die from anal cancer in a certain time frame.