Anal cancer

What is anal cancer?

Anal cancer starts in cells around the anus. Learn about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and risks in our guide to anal cancer.

Risk factors for anal cancer

The most important risk factor for anal cancer is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Learn about anal cancer risk.

Finding anal cancer early

When anal cancer is detected and treated early, the chances of successful treatment are better. Learn about finding anal cancer early.

Symptoms of anal cancer

Symptoms of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus and pain or discomfort and itching in the anal area. Learn about the symptoms of anal cancer.

Diagnosis of anal cancer

Tests to diagnose anal cancer, such as anoscopy and biopsy, are done when symptoms are present. Learn about diagnosing anal cancer.

Grading anal cancer

Grading anal cancer helps plan treatment and predict how the cancer may respond to treatment. Learn about the grades of anal cancer.

Stages of anal cancer

Staging describes how much anal cancer there is in the body. Learn about the stages of anal cancer using the TNM system.

If anal cancer spreads

Cancer can spread from around the anus to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis. Learn about common sites where anal cancer can spread.

Prognosis and survival for anal cancer

Learn about prognosis and survival for anal cancer. Important prognostic factors include the size of the tumour and if cancer has spread to lymph nodes.

Treatments for anal cancer

Treatments for anal cancer include radiation therapy with chemotherapy (chemoradiation) and surgery. Learn about treatment plans and options.

Supportive care for anal cancer

Supportive care helps people with physical and emotional aspects of anal cancer. Learn how to cope with diarrhea, sexuality and a colostomy.

Research in anal cancer

Researchers and healthcare professionals use what they learn from research studies to develop better ways to treat anal cancer.

Anal cancer statistics

More women are diagnosed with anal cancer than men in Canada. Learn about incidence and mortality statistics for anal cancer.