What is small intestine cancer?
Small intestine cancer is a malignant tumour that starts in cells of the small intestine. Malignant means that it can spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
The small intestine, or small bowel, is part of the digestive system. It is a hollow, tube-like organ in the abdomen. The small intestine is made up of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach. Digestive juices and bile are added to the food in the duodenum, and then the food is passed to the jejunum. The jejunum breaks the food down more, absorbs nutrients and passes digested food to the ileum. The ileum absorbs nutrients and passes what is left to the large intestine.
Cells in the small intestine sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes can cause precancerous conditions. This means that the cells are not yet cancer but there is a higher chance these abnormal changes will become cancer. The most common precancerous condition of the small intestine is an adenomatous polyp, or adenoma.
In some cases, changes to cells in the small intestine can cause cancer. Cancer that starts in the gland cells in the lining of the small intestine is called an adenocarcinoma of the small intestine.
Other types of cancer can also start in the small intestine. Neuroendocrine tumours start in the neuroendocrine cells of the small intestine. Lymphoma is a type of cancer that starts in lymph tissue of the small intestine. Sarcoma is a type of cancer that can start in the wall of the small intestine.
Expert review and references
Moore Dalal K, and Fong Y . Small bowel cancers. Kelsen, D. P., Daly, J. M., Kern, S. E., Levin, B., Tepper, J. E., & Van Cutsem, E. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Gastrointestinal Oncology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008: 51: pp. 707-717.
Zeh HJ, and Federle M . Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract: cancer of the small intestine. Devita, V. T., Jr., Lawrence, T. S., & Rosenberg, S. A. Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008: 39.9: pp. 1187-1206.