Treatments for locally advanced prostate cancer
The following are treatment options for locally advanced prostate cancer. Locally advanced prostate cancer has spread outside of the prostate but hasn't spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. Your healthcare team will suggest treatments based on your needs and work with you to develop a treatment plan.
Treatment options for locally advanced prostate cancer include:
- radiation therapy with hormone therapy
- surgery and radiation therapy, with or without hormone therapy
- hormone therapy alone
- watchful waiting
Radiation therapy @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells. It is often used to treat locally advanced prostate cancer. It is usually given together with hormone therapy.
External radiation therapy is the main treatment for locally advanced prostate cancer. It may also be given after a radical prostatectomy (called adjuvant radiation therapy) to reduce the risk that the cancer will come back (recur).
Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy that uses a radioactive substance (radioactive isotope) placed directly into the tumour or very close to it (called an implant). It is sometimes given in combination with external radiation therapy.
Find out more about radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
You may be offered one of the following types of surgery for locally advanced prostate cancer.
Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate and some tissues around it. The surgeon may also remove lymph nodes from the pelvis (called a pelvic lymph node dissection) at the same time as a radical prostatectomy. Radiation therapy or hormone therapy or both are sometimes given after a radical prostatectomy.
Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) removes part of the prostate through the urethra. TURP may be used to:
- relieve urinary (peeing) problems caused by an enlarged prostate pressing on the urethra
- reduce the size of the tumour before radiation therapy or hormone therapy
Find out more about surgery for prostate cancer.
Hormone therapy @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Hormone therapy changes the levels of hormones or blocks certain hormones to slow the growth and spread of cancer cells. It may be offered before, during or after radiation therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer. It may also be used alone as a main treatment if you can't have radiation therapy or surgery or if you are elderly and aren't having any symptoms.
Hormone therapies may be used on their own or combined and include:
luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone (LHRH)agonist
- an LHRH antagonist
an androgen synthesis inhibitor
an orchiectomy (surgery to remove the testicles)
Find out more about hormone therapy for prostate cancer.
Watchful waiting @(Model.HeadingTag)>
You may be offered watchful
waiting if you are elderly and don't want the side effects that come along with
treatment or are unable to have treatment due to other medical conditions. Watchful
waiting is less intensive than
Find out more about watchful waiting for prostate cancer.
Clinical trials @(Model.HeadingTag)>
American Cancer Society. Prostate Cancer. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2015: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003134-pdf.pdf.
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Prostate Cancer. 2014: http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostate-cancer/view-all.
Chodak GW. Prostate Cancer. 2015: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1967731-overview#a3.
National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®). 2015: http://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/patient/prostate-treatment-pdq.
National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Treatment for Health Professionals (PDQ®). 2015: http://www.cancer.gov/types/prostate/hp/prostate-treatment-pdq.
Princess Margaret Cancer Centre. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Clinical Practice Guidelines: Prostate Cancer. 2015: http://www.uhn.ca/PrincessMargaret/Health_Professionals/Programs_Departments/Genitourinary_GU/Documents/CPG_GU_Prostate.pdf.