Risk factors for leukemia
A risk factor is something that increases the risk of developing cancer. It could be a behaviour, substance or condition. Most cancers are the result of many risk factors. But sometimes leukemia develops in people who don’t have any of the risk factors described below.
Men are more likely than women to develop leukemia. The risk for developing most types of leukemia increases with age.
Different types of leukemia have different risk factors. One risk factor may not increase the risk for all types of leukemia. Not all risk factors for the different types of leukemia are listed below.
Risk factors are generally listed in order from most to least important. But in most cases, it is impossible to rank them with absolute certainty.
Risk factors @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy
There is convincing evidence that the following factors increase your risk for leukemia.
High levels of radiation @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Coming into contact with high levels of radiation – for example, radiation from nuclear reactor accidents – is a risk factor for leukemia.
Previous radiation therapy and chemotherapy @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Radiation therapy given in the past to treat cancer or other health conditions increases the risk of leukemia. Chemotherapy given in the past to treat cancer also increases the risk. Having had both radiation therapy and chemotherapy to treat cancer increases the risk more than having had the individual treatments alone.
Smoking tobacco increases the risk of some types of leukemia, and it may increase the risk for other types.
Breathing in benzene @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Benzene is found in unleaded gasoline and is used by the chemical industry. People may breathe in benzene at work or in the general environment or by using certain products. Benzene increases the risk of leukemia.
Breathing in formaldehyde @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Some studies have shown that breathing in formaldehyde increases the risk of leukemia. Factory workers, chemical workers, embalmers and other people may come into contact with formaldehyde at work. Embalmers are at a higher risk of leukemia because they tend to have contact for a longer time and use more formaldehyde in their work.
Family cancer syndromes @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Some conditions are linked to an increased risk of cancer, including leukemia, because of an inherited gene mutation (a change in the gene). These conditions are called family cancer syndromes or inherited (hereditary) cancer syndromes. Most family cancer syndromes are rare. Family cancer syndromes can lead to leukemia in both children and adults.
Down syndrome Fanconi anemia ataxia-telangiectasia Bloom syndrome
Possible risk factors @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Overweight and obesity are possible risk factors for leukemia. This means that they have been linked with leukemia, but there is not enough evidence to show for sure that they are risk factors.
Questions to ask your healthcare team @(Model.HeadingTag)>
Expert review and references
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Gentry PR, Rodricks JV, Turnbull D, Bachand A, Van Landingham C, Shipp AM, Albertini RJ, Irons R. . Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: critical review and reevaluation of the results from a study that is the focus for evidence of biological plausibility. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. 2013.
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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Volume 100E: Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions. 2012: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100E/mono100E.pdf.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Volume 100F: Chemical agents and related occupations: a review of human carcinogens. 2012: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100F/index.php.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Volume 100B: Biological agents: a review of human carcinogens. 2012: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100B/mono100B.pdf.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Volume 112: Some organophosphate insecticides and herbicides: diazinon, glyphosate, malathion, parathion, and tetrachlorvinphos. 2015: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol112/index.php.
Linet, M.S., Devesa, S.S., & Morgan, G.J. . The leukemias. Schottenfeld, D. & Fraumeni, J. F. Jr. (eds.). Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006: 44: pp. 841-871.
National Toxicology Program . 14th Report on Carcinogens . Department of Health and Human Services ; 2016 .
Saberi Hosnijeh F, Romieu I, Gallo V, Riboli E, Tjonneland A, Halkjaer J, et al . Anthropometric characteristics and risk of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Causes and Control. 2013.