A procedure that uses an endoscope (a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and lens) to examine or treat sigmoid colon (the last part of the colon) and rectum.

Cells or tissue may be removed for examination under a microscope. Doctors may also use sigmoidoscopy to control bleeding or remove polyps or tumours.

The type of endoscope used for this procedure is called a sigmoidoscope. Doctors generally use flexible sigmoidoscopes because they give more complete views of the sigmoid colon and are more comfortable than rigid sigmoidoscopes.

Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.