Treatments for stage 4S neuroblastoma
There is no standard treatment for stage 4S neuroblastoma, and many children may not need to have any treatment. If your child doesn't have any symptoms or unfavourable prognostic factors, they may just need watchful waiting (observation). Children with symptoms or unfavourable prognostic factors may be treated with chemotherapy. Surgery may not be necessary for stage 4S neuroblastoma other than a biopsy of the primary site or a site where the disease has spread.
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Watchful waiting may be the only treatment needed for children with stage 4S neuroblastoma who don't have any symptoms. Often these tumours will disappear on their own or will turn into a non-cancerous ganglioneuroma. If symptoms develop, doctors may offer chemotherapy or other treatments available in a clinical trial.
Chemotherapy is sometimes used to treat stage 4S neuroblastoma if children have symptoms or unfavourable prognostic factors. Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to destroy cancer cells.
Chemotherapy drugs that may be used include:
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Low-dose radiation therapy is sometimes, but rarely, used to treat stage 4S neuroblastoma. Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to destroy cancer cells. It may be given to treat symptoms of liver metastases.
Find out more about radiation therapy for neuroblastoma.
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American Society of Clinical Oncology. Neuroblastoma. 2014.
Bartholomew, J . Neuroblastoma. Baggott C, Fochtman D, Foley GV & Patterson Kelly, K (eds.). Nursing Care of Children and Adolescents with Cancer and Blood Disorders. 4th ed. APHON; 2011: 30: pp. 1038-1053.
Brodeur GM, Hogarty MC, et al . Neuroblastoma. Pizzo, P. A. & Poplack, D. G. (Eds.). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011: 30:886-922.
National Cancer Institute. Neuroblastoma Treatment (PDQ®) Health Professional Version. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2014.