What are the benefits and limitations of testing for prostate cancer?

Almost every test or procedure has benefits and limitations. You might think of these as pros and cons. Before having any test, it’s important to be aware of them so that you’re making an informed decision that’s right for you. Testing for prostate cancer early – before you have any symptoms – is your choice.

Benefits of PSA testing
  • PSA testing may reassure you if the result is normal.
  • PSA testing may tell you that you need further testing if the result is higher than what is normal for your age.
  • PSA testing may help find prostate cancer early before you have symptoms.
  • PSA testing may help find cancer before it spreads beyond the prostate when it is easier to treat.
Limitations of PSA testing
  • Sometimes the PSA test suggests you have prostate cancer when you don’t (called a false positive).
  • The PSA test may not detect cancer even if you have it (called a false negative).
  • PSA testing can’t tell you how dangerous the prostate cancer is.
  • PSA testing may find a type of prostate cancer that grows slowly and may never cause problems or need treatment (called overdiagnosis).
  • PSA testing may lead to unnecessary treatment that can have side effects.
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Active surveillance

Prostate cancers that grow very slowly are low risk, and you may not need active treatment (surgery, drugs or radiation) right away. Instead your healthcare provider may recommend active surveillance, which means they will watch the cancer closely rather than treating it right away.

Some people may find it stressful to know they have cancer but aren’t being treated for it. But sometimes the side effects from treatment can be harmful.
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It's your decision

Still trying to decide about the PSA test? Research has not yet clearly shown if the benefits of testing for prostate cancer outweigh the limitations. Deciding whether to be tested for prostate cancer can be confusing. It’s important to talk to your healthcare provider about what is right for you.