Survival statistics for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours

Last medical review:

Survival statistics for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours are very general estimates and must be interpreted very carefully. These statistics are based on the experience of groups of children and cannot be used to predict a particular child’s chances of survival.

There are many different ways to measure and report cancer survival statistics. Your child’s doctor can explain the statistics for childhood brain and spinal cord tumours and what they mean for your child.

Observed survival

Observed survival is also called overall survival. It is the percentage of children with a certain type of cancer who are expected to live for at least a specified period of time after their diagnosis. Doctors often use the observed or overall survival rate when they talk about a prognosis.

The 5-year observed survival for brain and spinal cord tumours in children 0 to 14 years of age is 72%. This means that, on average, 72% of children diagnosed with brain or spinal cord tumours are expected to live at least 5 years after their diagnosis.

Survival by type

Survival varies with each type of childhood brain or spinal cord tumour. Depending on the tumour type, survival can also vary by grade or risk group.

Generally, the lower the grade of the tumour, the better the outcome. Some types of tumours have a better prognosis than others.

There are no specific Canadian statistics available for the different types of brain and spinal cord tumours in children. The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) provides survival statistics for more common types of childhood brain and spinal cord tumours. They are based on children aged 19 and younger.

The survival statistics from CBTRUS are reported as 5-year relative survival. Relative survival looks at how likely people with cancer are to survive for at least 5 years after their diagnosis compared to people in the general population who do not have cancer but who share similar characteristics (such as age and sex).

Type of childhood brain or spinal cord tumour

5-year relative survival

pilocytic astrocytoma


intracranial germ cell tumours




high-grade glioma


Questions about survival

Talk to your child’s doctor about their prognosis. A prognosis depends on many things, including:

  • the child’s medical history
  • the type of cancer
  • the stage
  • certain characteristics of the cancer
  • the treatments chosen
  • how the cancer responds to treatment

Only a doctor familiar with these factors can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis.

Expert review and references

  • Donna Johnston, MD
  • Nirav Thacker, MD
  • Canadian Cancer Statistics Advisory Committee. Canadian Cancer Statistics 2021. Canadian Cancer Society; 2021.
  • Ostrom QT, Price M, Ryan K, et al. CBTRUS statistical report: Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation childhood and adolescent primary brain and other central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2014-2018. Neuro-oncology. 2022: 24(Suppl 3): iii1–iii38.

Medical disclaimer

The information that the Canadian Cancer Society provides does not replace your relationship with your doctor. The information is for your general use, so be sure to talk to a qualified healthcare professional before making medical decisions or if you have questions about your health.

We do our best to make sure that the information we provide is accurate and reliable but cannot guarantee that it is error-free or complete.

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